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澳门气象局:珠海香洲地震不排除有余震

国际在线报道(记者 王琦):近日,记者从中国科学院国家创新与发展战略研究会了解到,其合作伙伴、国际著名智库21世纪理事会成员、英国前首相戈登 布朗联合全球前政要、学者共165人(ren)发表《致二十国集团成员倡议书》, 倡议在未来几天内采取国际协调行动,以应对(dui)新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情蔓延对(dui)全球公共卫生安全和世界经济带来的(de)危机 。

该倡议支持世界卫生组织在协调国际抗疫行动中发挥领导作用,采取紧急措施促进世界经济尽快复苏。这需要世界各国领导人(ren)承诺并提供远超现有国际机构所能承担的(de)资金支持。

倡议强调,当下的(de)所有问题都是(shi)紧密相联的(de),必须协调行动以应对(dui)危机: 当前,如果公共卫生紧急状况不能得到有效控制,经济紧急状况也将无法解除。疫情不会因为一个国家战胜了疾病而结束,只有确保所有国家都从新冠肺炎的(de)袭扰中恢复,才能彻底宣告这一全球卫生紧急状况的(de)终结 。

倡议表示,世界各国领导人(ren)应当遵照全球应急准备监测委员会(GPMB)的(de)要求,履行承诺提供80亿美元的(de)资金,以尽快填补新冠肺炎应对(dui)措施中最紧迫的(de)缺口;还需要筹备350亿美元为卫生体系薄弱的(de)国家以及特别易感群体提供帮扶,包括提供重要的(de)医疗用品,提高对(dui)其国家卫生工作人(ren)员的(de)补助,加强国家恢复能力和准备工作。

为此,该倡议书呼吁举行一次全球认捐大会,由二十国集团执行特别工作组为主导,为全球公共卫生紧急需求提供资源。

倡议提出,目前全球性的(de)经济困境需要一个全球性的(de)经济应对(dui)方案,为防止流动性危机演变为偿付能力危机,防止全球经济衰退演变为全球大萧条,需要更好(hao)地协调财政、货币、央行和反保护主义的(de)举措。

如果我(wo)们(men)任由疾病在非洲、亚洲和拉丁美洲一些贫穷的(de)城市,在缺乏检测设(she)备、呼吸机和医疗用品的(de)脆弱社区,以及在难以保持社交距离、甚至连洗手都不能保证的(de)地区大肆蔓延,那么新冠肺炎将会在那里长期存在,并再度侵袭世界其他(ta)地区,从而无限期延长此次危机的(de)存续时间(shijian)。

该倡议由21世纪理事会发起。墨西哥前总统埃内斯托 塞迪略、意大利前总理马里奥 蒙蒂、加拿大前总理保罗 马丁、澳大利亚前总理陆克文、巴基斯坦前总理肖卡特 阿齐兹、新加坡前外交部长杨荣文、博古睿研究院创始人(ren)兼主席尼古拉斯 博古睿,中国科学院国家创新与发展战略研究会副会长、国际货币基金组织前副总裁朱民等21世纪理事会成员,联合国前秘书长潘基文、世界银行前常务副行长兼首席财政官伯特兰 巴德雷等国际组织前负责人(ren),世界银行首席经济学家林毅夫等专家学者共同署名。

倡议书英文版

GLOBAL CALL TO ACTION TO

GOVERNMENTS OF THE G20 NATIONS

We are writing to call for immediate internationally coordinated action within the next few days to  address our deepening global health and economic crises from COVID-19. 

The communique from the extraordinary G20 Leaders meeting on March 19, 2020, recognized the gravity  and urgency of the entwined public health and economic crises, but we now require urgent specific  measures that can be agreed on with speed and at scale: emergency support for global health initiatives led  by the World Health Organization (WHO) and emergency measures to restore the global economy. Both  require world leaders to commit to funding far beyond the current capacity of our existing international  institutions. 

In 2008-2010, the immediate economic crisis could be surmounted when the economic fault line under-capitalization of the global banking system was tackled. Now, however, the economic emergency will  not be resolved until the health emergency is effectively addressed: the health emergency will not end  simply by conquering the disease in one country alone, but by ensuring recovery from COVID-19 in all  countries. 

Global Health Measures

All health systems even the most sophisticated and best funded are buckling under the pressures of the  virus. Yet if we do nothing as the disease spreads in poorer African, Asian, and Latin American cities and  townships and in fragile communities which have little testing equipment, ventilators, and medical  supplies; and where social distancing and even washing hands are difficult to achieve, COVID-19 will  persist there and re-emerge to hit the rest of the world with further rounds that will prolong the crisis. 

World leaders must immediately agree to commit $8 billion as set out by the Global Preparedness  Monitoring Board to fill the most urgent gaps in the COVID-19 response. This includes: 

 $1 billion this year for WHO: This would enable WHO to carry out its critically important mandate  in full. While it has launched a public appeal 200,000 individuals and organizations have generously  donated more than $100 million it cannot be expected to depend on charitable donations. 

 $3 billion for Vaccines: The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) is coordinating  the global research effort to develop and scale up effective COVID-19 vaccines and Gavi, the Vaccine  Alliance (Gavi). In addition, Gavi will have an important role procuring and equitably distributing  vaccines to the poorest countries and requires $7.4 billion for its replenishment: this should be fully  funded. 

 $2.25 billion for Therapeutics: The COVID-19 Therapeutics Accelerator aims to deliver 100 million  treatments by the end of 2020 and is seeking these funds to rapidly develop and scale-up access to  therapeutics. 

Instead of each country, or state or province within it, competing for a share of the existing capacity,  with the risk of rapidly increasing prices, we should also be vastly increasing capacity by supporting  the WHO in coordinating the global production and procurement of medical supplies, such as testing  kits, personal protection equipment, and ITU technology to meet fully the worldwide demand. We will  also need to stockpile and distribute essential equipment. 

A further $35 billion will be required, as highlighted by WHO, to support countries with weaker health  systems and especially vulnerable populations, including the provision of vital medical supplies, surge  support to the national health workforce (70% of whom in many countries are underpaid women), and strengthening national resilience and preparedness. According to WHO, almost 30% of countries have no  COVID-19 national preparedness response plans and only half have a national infection prevention and  control program. Health systems in lower income countries will struggle to cope; even the most optimistic  estimates from Imperial College London suggest there will be 900,000 deaths in Asia and 300,000 in  Africa. 

We propose the convening of a global pledging conference its task supported by a G20 Executive  Task Force to commit resources to meeting these emergency global health needs.

Global Economic Measures

Much has been done by national governments to counter the downward slide of their economies. But a  global economic problem requires a global economic response. Our aim should be to prevent a liquidity  crisis turning into a solvency crisis, and a global recession becoming a global depression. To ensure  this, better coordinated fiscal, monetary, central bank, and anti-protectionist initiatives are needed. The  ambitious fiscal stimuli of some countries will be all-the-more effective if more strongly complemented by  all countries in a position to do so. 

 A wider group of central banks should be given access to the arrangements for currency swaps and the  International Monetary Fund (IMF) should enter into swap arrangements with the major central banks.  The IMF should use those hard currency resources and establish its own swap line facility to provide  emergency financial support to emerging and developing nations. But it is vital that if we are to prevent  mass redundancies, the guarantees that are being given in each country are rapidly followed through by  banks via on-the-ground support for companies and individuals. 

 The emerging economies and in particular those of the poorest countries need special help, not the  least in ensuring that support reaches all those affected by the drastic decrease in economic activity.  The IMF has said it will mobilize all of its available resources. There should be an additional allocation  of around $500-$1,000 billion in Special Drawing Rights (SDRs). At the same time, to ensure sufficient funding for individual countries, we encourage IMF members to allow lending quota limits to be  exceeded in countries most in need.

 The World Bank and many of the regional development banks have recently been recapitalized, but  more will be needed. It is likely that, as in 2009 when the International Bank for Reconstruction and  Development s (IBRD) spending alone went from $16 billion to $46 billion, it and the regional development banks will need a much larger expansion of available resources. 

 To meet its responsibilities for humanitarian aid, and for refugees and displaced people, whose plight  is likely to become desperate, and for the UN Sustainable Development Goals, UN agencies have  issued this week an immediate call for $2 billion of additional resources that are urgently needed. 

 The international community should waive this year s poorer countries debt repayments, including $44  billion due from Africa, and consider future debt relief to allow poor countries the fiscal space to tackle  the health and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. We ask the G20 to task the IMF and the  World Bank to further assess the debt sustainability of affected countries.  

We agree with African and developing country leaders that given the existential threat to their economies, the increasing disruption to livelihoods and education and their limited capacity to cushion  people and companies, that at least $150 billion of overall support, much of it on concessional terms,  will be needed for health, social safety nets, and other urgent help. 

These allocations should be agreed to immediately, coordinated by a G20 Executive Task Force as  part of the G20 Action Plan, and be confirmed in full at the upcoming IMF and World Bank meetings. The two core economic institutions should be given reassurances that additional bilateral funding will be forthcoming and the need for further capital injections agreed.

The longer-term solution is a radical rethink of global public health and a refashioning together with proper  resourcing of the global health and financial architecture. 

The United Nations, the governments of the G20 nations, and interested partners should work together to  coordinate further action. 

April 6, 2020

Signed,

Bertie Ahern 

Taoiserach of the Republic of Ireland  (1997-2008) 

Rashid Alimov˚ 

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Tajikistan  (1992-1994); Secretary General of the  Shanghai Cooperation Organization  (2016-2019) 

Giuliano Amato 

Prime Minister of Italy (1992-1993;  2001-2001) 

Mohamed Amersi 

Founder and Chairman of the Amersi  Foundation 

Louise Arbour 

United Nations High Commissioner for  Human Rights (2004-2008); United Nations  Special Representative for International  Migration (2017-Present) 

Shaukat Aziz* 

Prime Minister of Pakistan (2004-2007) 

Gordon Bajnai 

Prime Minister of Hungary (2009-2010) 

Jan Peter Balkenende^ 

Prime Minister of the Netherlands  (2002-2010) 

Joyce Banda^ 

President of Malawi (2012-2014) 

Jos Manuel Barroso^

Prime Minister of Portugal (2002-2004);  President of the European Commission  (2004-2014); Non-Executive Chairman of  Goldman Sachs International 

Kaushik Basu

Chief Economist of the World Bank  (2012-2016); President of the International  Economic Association (2017-Present) 

Deus Bazira

Co-Director of the Center for Global Health  Practice and Impact at Georgetown  University Medical Center 

Marek Belka

Prime Minister of Poland (2004-2005);  Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of  Finance (2001-2002); Director of the  European Department at the International  Monetary Fund (2008-2010) 

Nicolas Berggruen* 

Founder and Chairman of the Berggruen  Institute (2010-Present) 

Erik Bergl f 

Chief Economist of the European Bank for  Reconstruction and Development  (2006-2014); Director of the Institute of  Global Affairs at the London School of  Economics (2015-Present) 

Sali Berisha˚ 

President of Albania (1992-1997); Prime  Minister (2005-2013) 

Timothy Besley 

President of the International Economic  Association (2014-2017) 

Carl Bildt^ 

Prime Minister of Sweden (1991-1994);  Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sweden  (2006-2014) 

Valdis Birkavs^ 

Prime Minister of Latvia (1993-1994) 

Anthony Blair 

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom  (1997-2007) 

James Brendan Bolger 

Prime Minister of New Zealand  (1990-1997) 

Kjell Magne Bondevik 

Prime Minister of Norway (1997-2000;  2001-2005) 

Lakhdar Brahimi+ 

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Algeria  (1991-1993); United Nations Arab  League Envoy to Syria (2012-2014) 

Gordon Brown* 

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom  (2007-2010)

Gro Harlem Brundtland+ 

Prime Minister of Norway (1990-1996);  Director General of the World Health  Organization (1998-2003) 

John Bruton^ 

Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland  (1994-1997) 

Felipe Calder n^ 

President of Mexico (2006-2012) 

Fernando Henrique Cardoso^ 

President of Brazil (1995-2002) 

Hikmet etin˚ 

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Turkey  (1991-1994) 

Helen Clark^ 

Prime Minister of New Zealand  (1999-2008); United Nations Development  Programme Administrator (2009-2017) 

Emil Constantinescu˚ 

President of Romania (1996-2000) 

Mirko Cvetković˚

Prime Minister of Serbia (2008-2012) 

Gavyn Davies 

Chief Economist and Chairman of the  Global Investment Department at Goldman  Sachs (1988-2001); Chairman of the BBC  News (2001-2004) 

Kemal Derviş 

Minister of Economic Affairs of Turkey  (2001-2002); United Nations Development  Programme Administrator (2005-2009);  

Ruth Dreifuss 

President of the Swiss Confederation (1999) 

Frederik Willem de Klerk 

State President of South Africa (1989-1994) 

Dominique de Villepin 

Prime Minister of France (2005-2007) 

Mark Dybul 

Executive Director of the The Global Fund  to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria  (2012-2017); Co-Director of the Center for  Global Health Practice and Impact at  Georgetown University Medical Center 

Victor Dzau 

President of the United States National  Academy of Medicine (2014-Present) 

Jeremy Farrar 

Director of the Wellcome Trust (2013-Present) 

Joschka Fischer 

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Vice  Chancellor of Germany (1998-2005)

Franco Frattini˚ 

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Italy (2002-2004;  2008-2011); European Commissioner for  Justice, Freedom, and Security (2004-2008) 

Ahmed Galal 

Finance Minister of Egypt (2013-2014) 

Felipe Gonz lez Marquez* 

Prime Minister of Spain (1982-1996) 

Ameenah Gurib-Fakim˚ 

President of Mauritius (2015-2018) 

Sergei Guriev 

Chief Economist of the European Bank for  Reconstruction and Development (2016-2019) 

Alfred Gusenbauer^ Chancellor of Austria (2000-2008) 

Tarja Halonen^ 

President of Finland (2000-2012) 

Bengt Holmstr m 

Nobel Laureate for Economic Sciences (2016) 

Mohammed Ibrahim* 

Founder of Celtel; Founder and Chairman of  the Mo Ibrahim Foundation (2006-Present) 

Toomas Hendrik Ilves 

President of Estonia (2006-2016) 

Dalia Itzkik˚ 

Interim President of Israel (2007); President of  the Knesset (2006-2009) 

Mladen Ivanić˚ 

Chairman of the Presidency of Bosnia and  Herzegovina (2016-2017); Member of the  Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina  (2014-2018) 

Gjorge Ivanov˚ 

President of North Macedonia (2009-2019) 

Hina Jilani+ 

Special Representative of the United Nations  Secretary-General on Human Rights  (2000-2008); Advocate of the Supreme Court  of Pakistan (1992-Present) 

Mehdi Jomaa^ 

Prime Minister of Tunisia (2014-2015) 

Ivo Josipović˚ 

President of Croatia (2010-2015) 

Caroline Kende-Robb 

Executive Director of the African Progress  Panel (2011-2017); Secretary General of CARE  International (2018-2020) 

John Key 

Prime Minister of New Zealand (2008-2016) 

Jakaya Kikwete 

President of Tanzania (2005-2015) 

Ban Ki-moon+^ 

United Nations Secretary-General (2007-2016) 

Jadranka Kosor˚ 

Prime Minister of Croatia (2009-2011) 

John Kufuor 

President of Ghana (2001-2009) 

Luis Alberto Lacalle de Herrera^ 

President of Uruguay (1990-1995) 

Ricardo Lagos*+ 

President of Chile (2000-2006) 

Zlatko Lagumdzija^ 

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and  Herzegovina (2012-2015) 

Pascal Lamy* 

Director-General of the World Trade  Organization (2005-2013) 

Hong-Koo Lee^ 

Prime Minister of South Korea (1994-1995) 

Yves Leterme^ 

Prime Minister of Belgium (2009-2011) 

Enrico Letta 

Prime Minister of Italy (2013-2014) 

Justin Yifu Lin 

Chief Economist of the World Bank  (2008-2012); Dean of the Institute of New  Structural Economics at Peking University 

Nora Lustig 

President Emeritus of the Latin American  and Caribbean Economic Association 

Gra a Machel+ 

Education and Culture Minister of  Mozambique (1975-1986) 

John Major 

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom  (1990-1997) 

Paul Martin* 

Prime Minister of Canada (2003-2006) 

Rexhep Meidani˚^ 

President of Albania (1997-2002) 

Stjepan Mesić˚^ 

President of Croatia (2000-2010) 

Mario Monti* 

Prme Minister of Italy (2011-2013) 

Amre Moussa˚ 

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt  (1991-2001) 

Dawn Nakagawa 

Executive Vice President of the Berggruen  Institute (2010-Present) 

Andrew Natsios

United States Agency for International  Development Administrator (2001-2006)

Bujar Nishani˚ 

President of Albania (2012-2017) 

Christopher Olusegun Obasanjo 

President of Nigeria (1999-2007) 

Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala 

Board Chair of the Global Alliance for  Vaccines and Immunisation (2016-Present);  Finance Minister of Nigeria (2011-2015) 

James O Neill 

Chair of Chatham House 

Djoomart Otorbayev˚ 

Prime Minister of Kyrgyzstan (2014-2015) 

Roza Otunbayeva^ 

President of Kyrgyzstan (2010-2011) 

Geoffrey Palmer 

Prime Minister of New Zealand  (1989-1990); Chair of the New Zealand  Law Commission (2005-2010)

Christopher Pissarides 

Nobel Laureate for Economic Sciences  (2010) 

Jan Pronk 

Minister for Development Cooperation of  the Netherlands (1989-1998) 

Zeid Raad al Hussein+ 

United Nations High Commissioner for  Human Rights (2014-2018) 

Iveta Radičov  

Prime Minister of Slovakia (2010-2012) 

Jose Ramos Horta^ 

President of East Timor (2007-2012) 

scar Ribas Reig^ 

Prime Minister of Andorra (1982-1984;  1990-1994) 

Mary Robinson+^ 

President of Ireland (19990-1997); United  Nations High Commissioner for Human  Rights (1997-2002); Chair of the Elders  (2018-Present) 

Dani Rodrik 

President-Elect of the International  Economic Association (2017-Present) 

Petre Roman^ 

Prime Minister of Romania (1989-1991) 

Kevin Rudd* 

Prime Minister of Australia (2007-2010;  2013) 

Julio Maria Sanguinetti^ 

President of Uruguay (1985-1990;  1995-2000)

Juan Manuel Santos+ 

President of Colombia (2010-2018); Nobel  Peace Prize Laureate (2016) 

Kailash Satyarthi 

Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (2014)

Wolfgang Sch ssel 

Chancellor of Austria (2000-2007) 

Ismail Serageldin˚ 

Vice President of the World Bank (1992-2000) 

John Sexton 

President Emeritus of New York University;  President of New York University (2002-2015) 

Jennifer Shipley^ 

Prime Minister of New Zealand (1997-1999) 

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf+ 

President of Liberia (2006-2018) 

Michael Spence* 

Nobel Laureate for Economic Sciences (2001) 

Devi Sridhar 

Professor of Global Public Health at the  University of Edinburgh (2014-Present);  Member of World Economic Forum Global  Agenda Council on the Health Industry 

Nicholas Stern 

Chief Economist of the World Bank  (2000-2003); Chief Economist of the European  Bank for Reconstruction and Development  (1994-1999) 

Joseph Stiglitz* 

Chief Economist of the World Bank  (1997-2000); Nobel Laureate for Economic  Sciences (2001) 

Petar Stoyanov˚ 

President of Bulgaria (1997-2002) 

Laimodota Straujuma˚ 

Prime Minister of Latvia (2014-2016) 

Lawrence Summers* 

Unites States Secretary of the Treasury  (1999-2001); Director of the United States  National Economic Council (2009-2010); Chief  Economist of the World Bank (1991-1993) 

Boris Tadić˚ 

President of Serbia (2004-2012) 

Helle Thorning-Schmidt* 

Prime Minister of Denmark (2011-2015) 

Eka Tkeshelashvili˚ 

Deputy Prime Minister of Georgia (2010-2012) 

Danilo T rk˚ 

President of Slovenia (2007-2012) 

Cassam Uteem˚ 

President of Mauritius (1992-2002) 

Andr s Velasco

Finance Minister of Chile (2006-2010); Dean  of the School of Public Policy at the London  School of Economics (2018-Present) 

Guy Verhofstadt 

Prime Minister of Belgium (1999 2008) 

Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga˚ 

President of Latvia (1999-2007) 

Leonard Wantchekon 

Founder and President of the African  School of Economics (2004-Present) 

Shang-Jin Wei  

Chief Economist of the Asian Development  Bank (2014-2016) 

Rowan Williams 

Archbishop of Canterbury (2002-2012);  Chair of Christian Aid (2013-Present) 

James Wolfensohn 

President of the World Bank (1995-2005) 

George Yeo* 

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Singapore  (2004-2011); Minister of Trade and  Industry for Singapore (1999-2004) 

Malala Yousafzai 

Nobel Peace Prize Laureate (2014) 

Kateryna Yushchenko˚ 

First Lady of Ukraine (2005-2010) 

Viktor Yushchenko˚ 

President of Ukraine (2005-2010) 

Jos Luis Rodr guez Zapatero 

Prime Minister of Spain (2004-2011) 

Ernesto Zedillo*+ 

President of Mexico (1994-2000) 

Min Zhu* 

Deputy Managing Director of the  International Monetary Fund (2011-2016) 

Action Aid 

Girish Menon, CEO 

CARE International UK 

Laurie Lee, CEO 

Catholic International Development  Charity

Christine Allen, Director 

Christian Aid 

Amanda Mukwashi, CEO 

Save the Children International 

Inger Ashing, CEO 

Save the Children UK 

Kevin Watkins, CEO 

WaterAid UK 

Tim Wainwright, CEO 

We are also grateful for the assistance of Dr Abiy Ahmed, Prime Minister of Ethiopia; H.E. Julius Maada Bio, President of Sierra  Leone; Sheikh Hasina Wazed, Prime  Minister of Bangladesh; andKen Ofori-Atta, Finance Minister of Ghana and Chair of  the World Bank Development Committee. 

* Member of the Berggruen Institute 21st  Century Council 

+ Member of The Elders 

˚ Member of Nizami Ganjavi International  Center 

^ Member of World Leadership Alliance  Club de Madrid

澳门气象局:珠海香洲地震不排除有余震

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